All About Nutrition
We decided to ask an expert to comment on the most common.
Elena Morozova, General Director of the Elena Morozova Slimming ClinicBEFORE: The separate nutrition system dictates quite clear rules: products containing carbohydrates are offered to be eaten separately from protein. The motivation looks convincing - in the case of the simultaneous consumption of proteins and carbohydrates in the stomach and intestines, the process of fermentation and decay begins. And this leads to the fact that the products are poorly absorbed, unoxidized fats and carbohydrates settle in various unnecessary places. What is really going on? EM: If you swallow poorly chewed foods, eat too quickly, without thinking about what to eat, then no separate nutrition will save from fermentation and flatulence. Regarding the combinations, remember our traditions, because Russians always ate cereals with milk, cabbage soup with bread, potatoes with butter, meat with cabbage. Over time, cabbage rolls, dumplings, dumplings, borscht appeared in the diet. And after all, this food has been perfectly combined during digestion for so many centuries, until we began to eat more than our body needs. In addition, the motor and physical activity of modern man is minimized to the limit. In fact, we are omnivores, which is confirmed by science, and there is no need to rank products for compatibility. Yes, in the acidic environment of the stomach, protein food is processed, and the alkaline environment of the small intestine acts on carbohydrates. However, adherents of separate nutrition forgot about the duodenum, where proteins, carbohydrates, and even fats are digested in a unified and harmonious way! In addition, monoproducts practically do not exist, for example: buckwheat and legumes contain fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Conclusion: if the volume and caloric content of food does not exceed the "accepting" ability of the body, then no negative processes in the intestine are terrible. All carbonated drinks lead to fermentation and, depending on the individual characteristics and the personal enzyme composition of the human gastrointestinal tract, legumes, fresh vegetables or fruits, mushrooms can also trigger flatulence.
BEFORE: Many nutritionists do not recommend drinking water during meals, as the gastric juice is “diluted”, and this disrupts the process of fermentation and assimilation of food. But how really? EM: The common assertion that a person is 80% water, they heard, I think, everything. And the fact that without food you can do up to 14 days, and without water - only 3 days, is known. And the fact that for good digestion you need to eat often and little by little is also not news. A logical question arises: if you do not recommend drinking water before meals, while you are forbidden to drink water during meals, and after eating you also need to withstand the time, when should you drink it? In the morning, on an empty stomach, it is advisable to drink up to 0.5 liters of clean, still water at room temperature or slightly warmed up. This technique allows you to start active processes in the gastrointestinal tract, trains the intestines for better emptying and is a kind of "alarm" for the whole organism. In our traditions, drink tea after a meal, in the East they drink it before a meal, the French and Italians cannot imagine a meal without clean water. So how is it right? The main thing is not when to drink, the main thing is what to drink! The temperature of the liquid is also very important. The most dangerous thing is to drink food with a COLD drink! Even good clean ice water becomes harmful during lunch: a drink with a temperature below room temperature “flushes” all the food eaten from the stomach in transit. But the number of calories eaten does not change, but you want to eat it literally in an hour. One world-famous fast food chain exploits this very principle of food physiology - it ate it, washed it down with an ice-cold drink, and after an hour and a half again we really want to eat. So, the nutritional value of eaten per day just "rolls over"! Drink food well with tea, especially leafy. However, it is important to remember: black tea in high concentration can cause constipation, and green tea - a hypertensive crisis. Coffee is generally food, and ranking it as a drink is extremely incorrect. Compotes and fruit drinks are also preferable to any soda, especially for children. But still, our main friend, with proper nutrition, is water, clean, drinking, at room temperature or heated to 40 ° C.
Food as an Antidepressant
There is a direct correlation between the nature of nutrition and mood.
It is known that a good mood depends on the content in the brain of a number of neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine). All of them are synthesized from only one amino acid, L-tryptophan, which is delivered to the brain from protein, such as meat. More recently, it was found that this happens only if proteins and carbohydrates enter the bloodstream from the intestine at the same time! So the connection between mixed (protein-carbohydrate) nutrition and mood turned out to be very close. Recently, such a nutritional option has been considered by psychotherapists as a therapeutic diet and as a real alternative to the new generation antidepressants (after all, they increase the content of the same serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine in the body).
DO: Is it true that people with gastrointestinal diseases should not drink beer? And does it really contain phytohormones similar to female sex hormones?EM: In the brewing industry, various additives are widely used that are designed to accelerate the production process, increase the shelf life of the product, improve the taste and other consumer properties, and in Russian preservatives. So the myth of "live beer" is collapsing. In addition, the hop cones, which are used to give the beer a specific bitter taste, contain the substance prenylnaringenin, which belongs to the class of phytoestrogens, that is, they are a plant analogue of female sex hormones! Their content in hops reaches from 20 to 300 mg per 1 kg of plant mass and the concentration of female hormone in just 1 liter of beer can be 0.15 mg in terms of estrogen. For example, in the body of a healthy woman, only 0.3-0.7 milligrams of estrogen is produced per day, this is by weight like half a grain of sugar!
DO: Are the wines and spirits really very high in calories? EM: Any strong alcoholic drink contains many calories - about 7 kcal per 1 g, which far exceeds the calorie content of proteins and carbohydrates. But these 7 kcal do not carry any nutritional value, they are absolutely empty. And if proteins, fats and carbohydrates are used by our body not only as a source of energy, but also as a building material, then alcohol only burns quickly, releasing energy. Moreover, the body uses alcohol calories in the first place. That is, alcohol “pushes” fats and carbohydrates to the side and goes “to the furnace” first. What remains unclaimed nutrients? Wait your turn, laying aside fat. In addition, alcohol burns the mucous membrane of the esophagus and stomach - hence the pain, heartburn, belching, gastritis and an ulcer. An interesting point: if you drink 50 ml (and no more) of a strong drink and then put an end to it, then such an amount of alcohol even stimulates the production of gastric juice and invigorates the metabolic processes. Although the question of whether there is a health benefit from alcohol is a moot point. On the one hand, small doses of alcohol help reduce "bad" cholesterol and have a positive effect on the state of the cardiovascular system, and some researchers consider red dry wine to be a source of beneficial substances - polyphenols. But here it is necessary to clarify that we are only talking about natural, high-quality red dry wine. There is also an opinion that 1-2 glasses of red wine are considered useful for the body no more than 3-4 times a week with light snacks. By and large, everything is poison and everything is medicine. And it turns one into another dosage.